You MUST reference if you:

  • quote (use someone else’s exact words),
  • copy (use their figures or tables),
  • paraphrase (use their idea in your own words) or
  • summarise (use a brief account of their ideas) …

Failure to acknowledge your source is plagiarism and is unacceptable.

Referencing can occur within the text of your essay, where you may acknowledge the use of a source by writing, for example: ‘As Douglas Pike has argued in Paradise of Dissent (and you go on to either quote or paraphrase words from his book.)’

However, even where the source is referred to in the text, full information about the source should then be provided in a footnote. A footnote for the example just used might look like this:

  1. Pike, D. Paradise of Dissent, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne,1957, p 114

A footnote should provide sufficient information for a reader to locate the source and check the accuracy of your use of it. Do not overdo footnoting, for example by referencing information that is common knowledge.

Note that full referencing is only required for Year 9 – 12 entries.

Examples of referencing from a range of sources

Original Letters or Emails

Identify the sender and receiver, the date of the letter, and (if possible) where the record is kept. Examples:

–          Email from to, 10 May 1998

–          Letter from Susan Brown to Eric Brown, dated 3.4.1918 (original in family archives)

Oral History Interviews

–          Interview with Mrs C. Zanetti, 5 May 1998


Cite the author’s name, the title in italics, the publisher, place of publication, year of publication and page number. Example:

–          Olesnicki, G. The World Around Us, Redback Books, New York, 1993 p 257

Chapters or Articles in a Publication

Place the publication’s title in italics and the chapter or article in inverted commas. Example:

–          Riley, M.S. and Heller, J.I.  ‘Development of children’s problem-solving ability’ in The Development of Mathematical Thinking, ed. H.P. Ginsberg, Academic Press, New York, 1983, pp. 153-196

Internet Sources

Cite the author’s name, (if possible) the date the article was written, title of the work, internet address and the date the site was accessed. Example:

–          Limb, L. (May 1992) ‘Relationships between Labour and African Nationalist Liberation Movements in South Africa’,   [Retrieved 03-2-16]

Material in Archival Institutions

Identify which institution holds the original records and give the numbers they use so that others can locate the documents. Examples:

–          National Archives of Australia: A1608/1, V45/1/12 Part 1, War Records,  Conscription

–          National Archives of Australia: A1, 1904/3421, E. Gaudron Application for Certificate of Naturalization